The most common materials used in carpet manufacturing have to be processed in many ways.

Firstly, raw fibres have to be processed into spun yarn. Up to the 20th century this was made by hand, using spindles and spinning wheels. Nowadays, machine-spun wool has reached the market as a product of industrialization.

Today high-value contemporary carpets still rely on hand-spinning which provides a yarn of irregular thickness and length. During the dyeing stage this type of yarn absorbs colour in a very different way compared to the very compact machine-spun yarn. As a result the carpet displays those typical natural colour nuances, and appears to have a greater depth.

During the spinning process the strands of fibres can be twisted with either a right hand i.e. ‘S’ twist or a left hand twist i.e. ‘Z’ twist.

Yarns can be used as ‘singles’ or be made of two or more plies. Two single yarns form a two-ply yarn, three single yarns form a three-ply yarn and so on.